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Halldén, Ola. “Learners’ Conceptions of the Subject Matter Being Taught: A Case from Learning History.” International Journal of Educational Research 19(3) (1993): 317-25.


In research on science education a good deal of attention has been given to the learner’s prior knowledge of the subject matter being taught, i.e., the learner’s alternative frameworks. In this chapter it is suggested that alternative frameworks are also of relevance to learning in the humanities and the social sciences. This is exemplified by the subject of history. The point is made that there is a meta level of alternative frameworks and that this level is the more important one with regard to history. An interview study is presented in which this meta level is explored.

International Journal of Educational Research