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von Borries, Bodo. "Concepts of Historical Thinking and Historical Learning in the Perspectives of German Students and Teachers." International Journal of Educational Research 27(3) (1997): 211-20.


Historical consciousness was studied by examining the different views of history found in German students and teachers. Student knowledge was found to be limited, with political opinions independent of historical interpretations. They adhere to cultural interpretations of history but do not practice them. In addition, general trends of historical teaching included that the audiovisual media have achieved dominance over the printed book, history is related to knowledge and documents and not to the role of construction in history, school media and the teacher seem to only weakly foster historical socialization, and adults no longer serve as the historical interpreters and custodians of cultural tradition. 

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