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Foster, Stuart J., John D. Hoge, and Richard H. Rosch. “Thinking Aloud about History: Children’s and Adolescents’ Responses to Historical Photographs.” Theory and Research in Social Education 27(2) (1999): 179-214. 


Explores third, sixth, and ninth grade students' interpretations of historical photographs. Finds that the students' ability to date the photographs and determine why the photographs were taken improved with age without differences in gender and race; differences in regard to race occurred in students' inferences about the peoples' lives portrayed in the photographs.