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Booth, Martin. “Skills, Concepts, and Attitudes: The Development of Adolescent Children's Historical Thinking.” History and Theory 22(4) (1983): 101-17.


Research into children's historical thinking based on a view of Piaget's theory which emphasizes the age-stage structure and the development of hypothetico -deductive thinking appears to be inappropriate, for such thinking has only limited connection with imaginative, empathetic response, which is the hallmark of historical understanding and the purpose of historical study. Content and teaching technique are more important than increased maturity and intelligence. A teacher's concern should be with the elements of historical thinking - knowledge, concepts, cognitive skills, empathy, interest, personal experience -and the ways in which these can be woven together to produce adductive historical thought. The eight-year old's historical understanding can be considered on its own terms: genuine historical thinking which is more limited than the older pupil's, but comparable and equally valid. 


History and Theory