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Barton, Keith C. “‘Oh, That's a Tricky Piece!’: Children, Mediated Action, and the Tools of Historical Time.” The Elementary School Journal 103(2) (2002): 161-85.


This study examined the understanding of historical time among elementary school students ages 6-12 years in Northern Ireland. Findings indicated that students relied on two effective tools (factual information about material history and their own experience) and two ineffective tools (looking for examples of progress/development, and anchoring and adjustment) to arrange historical pictures in chronological order and explain the arrangements. Children were familiar with key aspects of historical time.