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Barton, Keith C. “‘Bossed Around by the Queen’: Elementary Students’ Understanding of Individuals and Institutions in History.” Journal of Curriculum and Supervision 12(4) (1997): 290-314.


A yearlong, qualitative investigation of fourth and fifth graders in two elementary classrooms refines an emerging conclusion about children's historical thinking--their tendency to see historical events in terms of individuals' personal intentions and interactions and to ignore the role of societal institutions (government and the economy). An integrated social studies curriculum may help dispel such misconceptions.