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VanSledright, Bruce A., and Lisa Frankes. “Concept- and Strategic-Knowledge Development in Historical Study: A Comparative Exploration in Two Fourth-Grade Classrooms.” Cognition & Instruction 18(2) (2000): 239-83.


Used interviews and observations of teachers and students to examine how historical concepts and research strategies were taught and learned in two fourth grade classrooms. Found that teaching method differences were obvious but student differences in concept- and strategic-knowledge development were subtle. Both teachers were partially successful in promoting conceptual and strategic knowledge.