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Foster, Stuart J., and Elizabeth Anne Yeager. “‘You’ve Got to Put Together the Pieces’: English 12-Year-Olds Encounter and Learn from Historical Evidence.” Journal of Curriculum and Supervision 14(4) (1999): 286-317.


Employing a sample of 51 12-year-old British secondary pupils, a study analyzed children's written and oral responses to a series of (contradictory) historical questions concerning the Boston Massacre of 1770. Many students were capable of abstract historical reasoning--critiquing sources, detecting bias and ambiguity, and determining flaws in evidence.