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Canadian Historical Review 94 (3), septembre 2013

Now Available at Canadian Historical Review Online

Canadian Historical Review

Volume 94, Number 3 / September 2013

This issue contains:

Naturalizing Race Relations: Conservation, Colonialism, and Spectacle at the Banff Indian Days

Jonathan Clapperton     

The Aboriginal population around Banff National Park was in many ways restricted from its boundaries shortly after its creation. However, Aboriginal people – in particular the Stoney (Nakoda) – would return en masse once a year to participate in the Banff Indian Days. While ethnographic expositions and spectacles have received much attention from social and cultural historians, the Banff Indian Days differ in that they occurred within an atmosphere saturated by an ideology of nature conservation. Drawing on photographs, advertising posters, archival materials, and oral recordings, this article argues that the Banff Indian Days were a physical manifestation of a much broader (indeed ongoing) dialogue, renegotiated and performed annually, between Natives and newcomers over the conditions under which Aboriginal peoples would be included within Canada's burgeoning parks and protected areas. Ultimately, the relationships between Natives and Indian Days organizers, park staff, Banff residents, and spectators resulting from this discussion were ambivalent. For non-Native organizers and spectators, the Indian Days provided a means to show how Natives could be safely, though only temporarily, restored to the park's environ. Enclosing Aboriginal participants within outsider representations and restricting them to supposedly regimented schedules, non-Natives believed Aboriginals posed a threat neither to established social hierarchies nor to the environment. Yet Native participants proved autonomous and unpredictable. They consistently mocked and subverted many of the race, class, and gender boundaries that Indian Days organizers never envisioned them crossing. In doing so, they attempted to expand their role within the national park system specifically and within a settler-colonial society more broadly. DOI: 10.3138/chr.1188

Discours et pratiques transnationales. La YWCA et l'immigration au Canada

Yolande Cohen, Linda Guerry    

Au croisement de l'histoire des mouvements de femmes, de l'histoire de la société civile, des politiques migratoires et du travail social, cet article interroge pour la période des décennies 1920 et 1930 l'approche de la question de l'immigration et l'action menée auprès de migrants par des femmes de la Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) canadienne. Après une première période (des années 1870 à l'après-guerre) où dominent la réforme morale et la nationalisation des politiques d'immigration, émerge au sein de la YWCA une approche transnationale de l'aide aux immigrants. Dans le contexte de l'après-guerre, au moment où l'État fédéral intervient dans le domaine de l'accueil aux migrants et préconise une fermeture des frontières, la YWCA tisse des liens étroits avec les grandes organisations internationales naissantes en Europe. Dépassant le cadre impérial et national, et s'orientant vers une action moins confessionnelle et non plus orientée vers les seules femmes, la YWCA canadienne contribue ainsi à l'émergence au cours des années 1930 d'une approche inédite de l'aide aux migrants humanitaire et transnationale.

At the intersection of the history of women's movements, history of civil society, migration policy and social work, this article examines the approach that the women of the Canadian Young Women's Christian Association
(YWCA) took toward the issue of immigration and the work they undertook with migrants during the 1920s and 1930s. Following an initial time (from the 1870s to the post-war period), when the legal reform and the nationalization of immigration policies were predominant, a transnational approach to assisting immigrants emerged within the YWCA. In the context of the post-war period, when the federal state intervened in the reception of migrants and called for the closure of borders, the YWCA forged close ties with major international organizations rising in Europe. Transcending the imperial and national spheres, and orienting itself toward a less sectarian and no longer women-oriented action, throughout the 1930s the Canadian YWCA contributed to the emergence of a new humanitarian and transnational approach to assisting migrants. DOI: 10.3138/chr.1513
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Quebec, Haiti, and the Deportation Crisis of 1974

Sean Mills          

Throughout the fall of 1974, the threatened deportation of several hundred Haitians catalysed a major crisis in Quebec society. Rather than quietly accepting their fate, resisting individually by going underground, or heading to another jurisdiction, Haitian migrants brought their story to the larger public through protests and interventions in the mainstream media. In so doing, they mobilized a movement opposing the deportations, precipitating a crisis in Quebec political life during which church groups, trade unions, voluntary associations, civil rights organizations, and artists and intellectuals denounced the strict enforcement of immigration regulations.
Partly because of their appeals to the conscience of the population, and partly because of their ability to position themselves as ideal francophone immigrants for modern Quebec, Haitian migrants created a space for themselves in the public sphere in which their voices and perspectives could be heard. Throughout the crisis, they used this space to shift the discussion beyond debates about federal–provincial relations, to introduce new arguments about the interconnected histories of Canada, Quebec, and Haiti. The arguments that they brought forward had an important influence on social movements in Quebec as well as on the province's political culture in general. DOI: 10.3138/chr.1476
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No One Becomes a Feminist to Be Appreciated

Wendy Mitchinson         

In her memories of her “life in history,” Wendy Mitchinson integrates her private life with that of her work in the academy. As a member of the first major cohort of historians researching Canadian women's history, she relates her years as a student at York University in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the rise of feminism, and the way in which her work on women and becoming a feminist altered people's view of her and her own self-image. It was an exciting period of history, and she acknowledges that life choices open to her had not existed for her mother's generation. DOI: 10.3138/chr.9431
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Max Nemni and Monique Nemni, Trudeau Transformed: The Shaping of a Statesman, 1944–1965, reviewed by Paul Litt

John P. Comiskey, My Heart's Best Wishes for You: A Biography of Archbishop John Walsh, reviewed by Laura J. Smith

Lucille H. Campey, Seeking a Better Future: The English Pioneers of Ontario and Quebec, reviewed by Jane Errington

Bernd Horn, ed., Doing Canada Proud: The Second Boer War and the Battle of Paadeberg, reviewed by Mourad Djebabla

R. Blake Brown, Arming and Disarming: A History of Gun Control in Canada, reviewed by James Floros

Carmela Patrias and Larry Savage, Union Power: Solidarity and Struggle in Niagara, reviewed by Jeremy Milloy

Rhodri Windsor Liscombe, Architecture and the Canadian Fabric, reviewed by Jesse Allan Munroe

E.J. (ted) Hart, J.B. Harkin: Father of Canada's National Parks, reviewed by Alan MacEachern

DOI: 10.3138/chr.94.3.459
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Recent Publications Relating to Canada

Michael D. Stevenson   

This bibliography is intended to provide as complete coverage as possible of newly available material useful in the study of any aspect of Canadian history. In keeping with the diverse backgrounds and interests of our readers, both scholarly and well-researched popular sources are regularly listed. It should be noted that items of a purely contemporary or speculative nature and lacking appreciable historical content are normally excluded. Furthermore, accessibility considerations logically dictate that materials cited have appeared in published form, theses traditionally being the sole exception. Suggestions for possible inclusion in ‘‘Recent Publications’’ are welcomed and should be forwarded with the necessary technical information to the compiler at the Canadian Historical Review offices…. DOI: 10.3138/chr.94.3.476
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