These online resources feature a variety of primary and secondary sources on important topics in Canadian history accessible to teachers of Canadian history which
focus on significant events, time periods and topics in Canadian history;
include collections of primary sources in one or more of the following categories: maps, photographs, diaries, letters, paintings, posters, newspapers, political cartoons, official documents, oral history, film, audio interviews and recordings, monographs;
can be efficiently accessed, searched, navigated and utilized by students, teachers, or professors of Canadian history;
were created or produced by reliable historical sources.
This bilingual interactive atlas includes contemporary and historical maps with brief historical explanations for each of the following categories: Historical Indian Treaties, Aboriginal Peoples, Pre-Confederation Canada, Territorial Evolution, and Exploration 1497-1760.
Canadian Geographic: Historical Maps of Canada
Includes fourteen different coloured historical maps of Canada from 1700 to 1999 labelled in both English and French and accompanied by written explanations that describe the historical context and the important boundary changes featured on each map.
Historical Atlas of Canada: Online Learning Project
The different website pages are organized into two main sections: National Perspectives and Defining Episodes. Both the main sections feature chapters focused on a different historical topic or time period in Canadian history, and include conventional text, images, and interactive maps. Users can actively explore the data and themes presented by zooming in and out of map displays, turning map layers on or off, and accessing the tables of data behind the maps. The website also includes a series of Maptours, guided explorations of selected chapters in the atlas that provide examples of how to navigate through the interactive maps, and demonstrate some of the interesting pathways these tools can be used to discover. Each of the sections includes the following chapters:
National Perspectives: Prehistory (Ecological regions 1500 BCE), Exploration (16th-20th century), Native Canada (Population, Movements, and Reserves), Boundaries (Territorial Evolution 1670-2001), Population (Population and Immigration 1800-1961), Society (Art, Architecture, Universal Schooling, and Religious Adherence).
Defining Episodes: Military (War of 1812 and the Great War), Social (The Acadian Deportation and Return, The Impact of the Great Depression).
Historical Maps of Canada
This collection is part of an ongoing project of the Cartographic Research Laboratory at the University of Alabama to digitize their maps and make them freely available on the internet. The website includes three sections: Contemporary Map Index, the Historical Map Archive, and the Aerial Photography Index. The Historical Map Archive features over eighty historical maps of Canada, its provinces, and regions from 1748 to 1924.
W. H. Pugsley Collection of Early Canadian Maps: McGill University
This is an online collection of 50 early Canadian maps dating from 1556 to 1857.
2. Early European Exploration in North America
Champlain Revisited: Celebrating the Foundation of Quebec 1608
The McGill University Library has created the virtual exhibition "Champlain Revisited" to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Samuel de Champlain’s founding of Quebec City in 1608. The exhibition includes Champlain's original published voyages and other documents, which contain valuable iconographic and cartographic information about early New France. This exhibition also highlights the 300th celebrations in 1908.
For more than 100 years, the Champlain Society has increased public access to Canada's rich documentary heritage. Explore four centuries of adventure, travel, social change, economic growth, and nation building through the Society's books and online Digital Collection. Experience the history of Canada through the words and images of those who were there. The online Digital Collection contains 101 of the Champlain Society's volumes (almost 50,000 printed pages) dealing with exploration and discovery over three centuries including first-hand accounts of Samuel de Champlain's voyages in New France as well as the diary from Sir John Franklin's first land expedition to the Arctic, 1819–22.
David Thompson: Mapmaker, Explorer and Visionary
This online exhibit from the Archives of Ontario explores David Thompson’s (1770-1857) accomplishments, influence and legacy as a fur trader, astronomer, and surveyor who mapped more of North America than anyone else. Thompson’s journals, letters, maps and autobiography provide detailed insights into the fur trade, the Native People he encountered, and the lands he explored.
Frozen Ocean: Search for the Northwest Passage
This website is an online exhibition on the Northwest Passage created by the Toronto Public Library in 2004 and includes many maps, paintings and other sources outlining different attempts at discovering the Northwest Passage between the 16th and 19th centuries.
Inuit and Englishmen: The Nunavut Voyages of Martin Frobisher
This online exhibition from the Canadian Museum of Civilization traces the journeys of Martin Frobisher to what is now known as Nunavut between 1576 and 1578. In 1990 the Canadian Museum of Civilization took the lead in establishing the Meta Incognita Project which linked historians and scientists at several institutions in Canada, the United States, Great Britain and France, in a combined effort to recover further information relating to the Frobisher expeditions and protecting of the archaeological remains of Frobisher's mines and temporary settlements. The exhibition provides an account of Frobisher’s journey and attempts at settlement through the use of summaries and the inclusion of primary sources such as artifacts, diaries, accounts, paintings, photographs and other sources. A vast amount of supplementary information is also included.
Of Maps and Men: The Pursuit of a Northwest Passage
A thorough online exhibition from Princeton University documenting the 400 years explorers have sought a navigable passage through or across the Canadian Arctic. The website includes two main sections: a chronology of original maps, and primary and secondary accounts of the major arctic expeditions and explorers using a variety of photographs and paintings.
Pathfinders and Passageways: The Exploration of Canada
Who discovered and explored the land we know as Canada? This Library and Archives Canada website investigates the men and women from pre-history until the twentieth century who have directly furthered the geographical understanding of what is now Canada. In most cases, the explorers' published accounts of their travels are held in the National Library's Rare Book Collection and excerpts from these accounts are featured here. Where these do not exist, manuscript selections, or citations from works published by their contemporaries are included. Artistic works, maps, and artefacts are displayed throughout the site, many coming from the National Library's Rare Book Collection. The site is supplemented by thematic essays on mapmaking and transportation, biographies, a glossary as well as texts on topics recurrent in the history of exploration in Canada.
3. Early Settlement in North America
New France: New Horizons Exhibition
This online exhibition describes the adventure of New France, from the first voyages to North America, to the end of the French Regime. It is comprised of 350 archival documents arranged under 12 themes (Departure, Navigation, Discovery, Encounter, Settlement, Foundation, Daily Life, Administration, Trade, Worship, Warfare, and Survival) and includes manuscripts, printed material, maps and charts, plans, portraits, engravings, and medals that have been chosen for their visual and illustrative quality, their emotional impact, and their relevance.
Virtual Museum of New France
Created by the Canadian Museum of Civilization “New France: a New World” emphasizes the contribution of Europeans who tamed, explored and lived in this land. The Virtual Museum of New France realizes this human contribution and its influence on the expansion of the territory as well as on the traditions, customs, culture and institutions that transposed, borrowed or made their appearance in New France. The main research themes are the first inhabitants, exploration, the environment and climate, population, culture and traditions, and everyday life.
1755: The History and the Stories
This website presents a brief history of colonial Acadie as well as the key moments of the Grand Dérangement and the Deportation by showcasing a series of pertinent historical documents, maps, photos, works of art, and songs. Oral tradition calls upon collective family memories to showcase how the Acadian collective imagination perceives the Grand Dérangement and the Deportation—and in a series of previously unpublished video interviews, women and men from different parts of Atlantic Canada's Acadie recount the struggles of their ancestors during the difficult years of the Grand Dérangement.
Acadian Heartland: The Records of British Government at Annapolis Royal, 1713-1749
This resource presents digitized and fully searchable online versions of the earliest surviving records of British government in Nova Scotia.
Acadian Heartland: Records of the Deportation and le Grand Dérangement, 1714-1768
This is the largest and most complete online presentation of primary-source documents relating to the Deportation of the Acadians from Nova Scotia, digitized and fully searchable.
This CBC website documents the 400th (2004) anniversary of the founding of Acadie, and the establishment of the first French permanent settlement in North America at Saint Croix Island. The site includes an interactive atlas of Acadian history, Acadian facts, chronology, timeline, listings of Acadian family names, Acadian archaeology, and additional links.
Canada in the Making: The Deportation of the Acadians, 1755-1762
This website is built around government documents from the Early Canadiana Online collection, and integrates narrative text with links to primary source text, images, and maps to tell the story of the Acadian Deportation.
3.3. Colonial British North America
Colonial Despatches: The Colonial Despatches of Vancouver Island and British Columbia 1846-1871
The Colonial Despatches Collection is a digital archive created by a team of collaborators at the University of Victoria which contains the original correspondence between the British Colonial Office and the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia from 1846 to 1858 including important events such as the establishment of Fort Victoria, the creation of the Colony of Vancouver Island and the creation of the Colony of British Columbia. The entire collection of colonial correspondence can be searched by key words, names or locations. Biographical information is included for all individuals referred to in the despatches, place names have active links to modern maps, and the maps that originally accompanied the texts (more than 200 of them from the British National Archives) are all connected by hyper-link. In future years, the project aims to digitize and publish online a complete archive of the correspondence covering the period up to the incorporation of B.C. into the Canadian Federation in 1871.
The Governor’s Letters: Uncovering Colonial British Columbia
This bilingual website created by the University of Victoria invites grade 5-12 students and teachers to use the Colonial Despatches (day-by-day reports from the governors of the colony, as well as the Colonial Office minutes, their responses and associated correspondence from other British government departments) to explore four curriculum challenges written by the Critical Thinking Consortium (TC2) to accentuate historical thinking. In the four curriculum challenges teachers and students are invited to investigate the origins of modern British Columbia and Canada through important events in the history of the Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia including: 1. What were the reasons for creating the colony of B.C.? 2. Were the treaties Douglas signed with aboriginal people fairly negotiated? 3. Did the gold rush of 1858 radically change daily life in Victoria? 4. Did Governor James Douglas deserve to be knighted? The Teacher’s Materials focus on three critical reading strategies (Reading Around a Document, Judging the Credibility of Primary Sources, and Exploring the Author’s Mindset) designed to help teachers guide students through the analysis of primary sources.
Travels with Elizabeth Simcoe: A Visual Journey Through Upper and Lower Canada
This online exhibit profiles the travels of Elizabeth Simcoe, the wife of the first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada John Graves Simcoe. Between 1791 and 1796, Elizabeth travelled throughout Upper and Lower Canada producing a large number of sketches and watercolours depicting Canadian scenes. She was also an avid diarist and wrote about many of her experiences. These diaries and paintings combine to create a vivid portrait of both the raw beauty of the untamed landscape and the day-to-day life of a gentlewoman in pioneer times.
4. European-Aboriginal History
4.1. General Aboriginal History
Aboriginal Documentary Heritage: Historical Collections of the Canadian Government
This web exhibition recounts first-hand information illustrating the complex and often contentious relationship between the Canadian government and Canada's Aboriginal people from the late 1700s to the mid-20th century. The website presents three thematic sections that include essays and selected documents: the Red and Black Series (the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs' administrative records from 1872 to the 1950s); Treaties, Surrenders and Agreements; and Aboriginal Soldiers in the First World War.
Canada in the Making
This website is organized into three broad thematic narratives: Canada's Constitutional History (Pre-Contact to 2002), Aboriginals: Treaties and Relations (Pre-Contact to 2003), and Pioneers and Immigrants (1497-1914). Aboriginals: Treaties and Relations traces the course of relations between Aboriginals and Europeans, particularly the laws and treaties, and the events that preceded and followed these changes. This website is built around government documents from the Early Canadiana Online collection, and integrates narrative text with links to primary source text, images and maps. The website includes:
links to over 300 digitized documents;
summaries of over 250 key historical documents;
more than 175 historical images and maps;
links to reliable sources of historical information.
Canada in the Making: Specific Events and Topics
Beyond the three broad themes (described above) the Canada in the Making website also includes a number of topics of specific interest that allow the viewer to dig more deeply into specific topics in Canadian history. Topics relevant to Aboriginal history include Numbered Treaty Overview, Motivations Behind the Numbered Treaties, Aboriginal Political Agitation, Aboriginal Problems with Prairie Settlement, Aboriginal Women’s Issues, Aboriginal Residential Schools, the Métis, and the Riel Rebellions. These topics feature narrative text integrated with links to primary source text, images and maps.
CBC Digital Archives: Native Issues
The CBC/Radio-Canada Digital Archives website project has collected thousands of CBC radio and television clips from the past seven decades into hundreds of topics that can be viewed or listened to on the website. The array of different topics can be searched for via keyword or category (10 broad categories with further sub-categories). Possible topics of interest for teaching about Aboriginal Issues include A Lost Heritage: Canada’s Residential Schools, The Oka Crisis, George Erasmus: A Native Rights Crusader, A Celebration of Aboriginal Heritage, and the Battle For Aboriginal Treaty Rights.
Discover the Collection: Aboriginal Peoples
First Nations in British Columbia: From the BC Archives Time Machine
This First Nations gallery includes aboriginal accounts as well as European ethnographic collections of stories in an attempt to describe certain historical aspects of British Columbia.The First Nations created no written records. Instead their beliefs, customs and history are recorded in their own oral traditions, the first hand descriptions of early European explorers and settlers, and in the archaeological record. This gallery is organized into a variety of sections that include narrative text combined with photographs, maps and artwork of the First Nations People of British Columbia. The different sections include Cultural Areas, People of the Northwest Coast, People of the Interior, European Contact, Confederation to Present, West Coast Moving Image Gallery, Interior Moving Image Gallery, and a Teacher’s Corner.
Gateway to Aboriginal Heritage
This online exhibit from the Canadian Museum of Civilization is an excellent resource for investigating the histories and cultures of the Aboriginal Peoples in Canada. The website features a selection of historical and contemporary objects, images, and documents drawn from the Museum's artefact and archival collections to express the cultural diversity as well as the creativity, resourcefulness, and endurance of Canada’s First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples.
The Making of Treaty 8 in Canada’s Northwest
This bilingual virtual exhibition from the Virtual Museum of Canada features oral histories and archival material that commemorates the signing of Treaty 8 in the 19th century. The site is broken into four sections: The Treaty, The Setting, The People—Their Places, and 1899 and After and considers the complex issues relating to past, present, and future First Nations treaty negotiations in Canada.
Postcard Views of Indigenous People
This online collection of images is drawn from the collection of early Western Canadian postcards developed by the Special Collections Department of the University of Saskatchewan Library. Most of the postcards were produced in the first two decades of the 20th century. The collection includes posed studio portraits as well as depictions of camps, powwows, parades, totem poles and residential schools that can be viewed online.
Three First Nations Artists in British Columbia: An Exhibition
The BC Archives holds a collection of 10,000 paintings, drawings and prints from 1782 to the 1960s. These art works were created by artists who lived in or travelled through British Columbia and sketched or painted views of the landscape, peoples and activities. While other agencies, such as the Royal BC Museum, have collections that focus on the vast range of carvings, totem poles, jewelery, basketry, and other art forms created by Native people, the BC Archives collection of documentary art includes only a few works by Native artists in the form of paintings, drawings, and prints. This exhibition focuses on three First Nations Artists from British Columbia: Judith Morgan, Francis Batiste, and George Clutesi.
4.2. Louis Riel and the Rebellions
CBC Digital Archives: Rethinking Riel
From CBC Archives this collection of 11 television clips and 9 audio radio clips focus on tracing the changing perceptions of the Métis leader who commanded two rebellions in Western Canada and was tried, convicted and hanged for treason in 1885. Well into the 20th century Riel was regarded as "misguided and impetuous" at best and a psychotic traitor at worst. But in the 1960s Riel's image began to turn around, and today many Canadians have reclaimed him as a heroic patriot, founder of Manitoba, and a Father of Confederation.
Famous Trials: Louis Riel Trial 1885
The Trial of Louis Riel is one of many famous international trials included in Douglas O. Linder’s comprehensive University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) School of Law website. Included on this website is a Chronology of Events, Maps, Images, a Biography of Louis Riel, Excerpts from Chester Brown’s Biography of Louis Riel comic strip, Riel’s Diary Entries and Letters, the Treason Act and six Counts, excerpts from the Trial Transcript, Riel’s Trial Statement and Renunciation, Appeals and US Senate Investigation, and an Act to Revoke Riel’s Conviction.
Louis Riel Photo Gallery
This site has four online portraits of Louis Riel from 1858-1886 provided by the University of Manitoba Archives and Special Collections.
Northwest Rebellion Photograph Gallery
This site has six original photographs from the University of Manitoba Archives and Special Collections.
The Northwest Resistance: A Database of Materials
Métis National Council: Historical Online Database
This particular section of the Métis National Council Historical Online Database is devoted to providing historical and background information about the three types of records and information contained in the overall database: A Guide to 1901 Census of Canada, A Guide to the Section 31 Manitoba Act Affidavits Document Series, and A Guide to the Northwest “Half-breed” Scrip Applications Document Series. Also included on this webpage are three Archival Image Galleries.
Virtual Museum of Métis History and Culture: Our Proud Heritage
This section of the website contains the bulk of the Virtual Museum’s Oral History collection and the vast majority of historical photographs donated to the Institute by the Métis community. It also contains all print information relating to Métis resistance and communities.
Assembly of First Nations: Indian Residential Schools Unit
This website includes images of several residential school buildings that operated throughout Canada and images of residential school students organized by province
CBC Digital Archives—A Lost Heritage: Canada’s Residential Schools
CBC Archives offers 14 television and 8 radio clips from 1955-2008 documenting residential schools in Canada.
Where are the Children? Healing the Legacy of the Residential Schools
This high quality website created by The Legacy of Hope Foundation and supported by Canadian governmental organizations aims to promote awareness about the residential schools among the Canadian public to try and bring about reconciliation between generations of Aboriginal people, and between Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals. Included on the website are a number of sections useful for educators:
Blackboard: A comprehensive eleven chapter interactive history book of the residential schools that can be viewed in flash or html format and includes an audio narration of each page of text, a variety of photographs and other primary and secondary documents, and oral histories from survivors.
Interactive Map and Timeline: Interactive map shows locations and number of residential school by decade from 1860-2009 and a timeline provides a view of events in Aboriginal, Canadian, and world history during the residential schools era.
Bookcase: Textbooks for lifelong learners, grades 9-10, 11-12, a dictionary and a teachers’ guide.
School: A 3-D Gallery walk through a residential school.
Exhibit: A virtual exhibition presents photographs largely from public and church archival collections, from the 1880s to the 1960s.
Exploration: The Fur Trade and Hudson’s Bay Company
This website shows how the fur trade led to the exploration of the country and the formation of the oldest and largest company in Canadian history, the Hudson's Bay Company. This site has been written for students aged 9 and up, and includes in-text queries to encourage higher-level thinking, teaching suggestions for each topic, a timeline, glossary and many primary sources (maps, paintings, diaries) throughout. There are also links to useful information on other websites and to digitized primary sources in the Early Canadiana Online database that are of use to teachers, students and researchers.
Fur Trade Stories
This website owned and operated by Canada’s History (formerly Canada’s National History Society) includes an array of primary and secondary resources found in its collections of HBCA - Archives of Manitoba, The Manitoba Museum, Parks Canada and several First Nations communities. The website is broken into three time periods: Pre-Contact with Europeans to 1600, From 1600-1800, and From 1867 to Present Day.
Glossary of the Fur Trade
From the website for the Fort William Historical Park in Thunder Bay, Ontario, this detailed glossary is an important tool to help analyze primary sources about the fur trade.
HBC Learning Centre Map
This interactive map shows how the HBC has grown across Canada through four eras.
In Pursuit of Adventure: The Fur Trade in Canada and the North West Company
This scholarly research website examines the exploits of the North West Company and other Montreal-based fur trading companies at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century. This website is organized around the full texts of thirty-eight manuscripts that are known collectively as the Masson Papers (1790-1820) which provide important insights into the history of the North West Company and the fur trade in general. To assist users the website includes additional online tools: a specially commissioned history of the fur trade that emphasizes the activities of the North West Company, a chronology, a glossary, a selected bibliography, a list of related websites, and a number images and maps to enrich the site.
Canada, by Train
This website has three main sections: Ties That Bind provides a short history of railways in Canada and how they marketed their passenger services. It creates a context for the other two sections, Transcontinental Tour and Tracking Time. Transcontinental Tour highlights Library and Archives Canada's collection of railway advertising and some of the companies that created it. The collection contains brochures, timetables, and posters dating from approximately 1883 to 1952. Tracking Time examines the contribution of railways to the growth of Canada, through themes ranging from urban growth to immigration. Important Canadian events such as The Depression and the Royal Visit of 1939 are also linked to railways and trains.
CBC Digital Archives
The CBC/Radio-Canada Digital Archives website project has collected thousands of CBC radio and television clips from the past seven decades into hundreds of topics that can be viewed or listened to on the website. The array of different topics, radio, and television clips can be searched for via keyword, and they are also classified into ten broad categories (with further sub-categories). Possible topics of interest to teachers focusing on transportation in Canadian history include Trans-Canada Highway: Bridging the Distance, and The St. Lawrence Seaway: Gateway to the World.
CN Images of Canada Gallery
Historical photographs on this website include collections of photographs organized into the following transportation topics: Aviation, Railways, Marine Services, Road Transport, Structures, and Scenic Views, along with several photo essays including Railways in Canada: A Brief History, and a Train Journey Through the Ottawa Valley.
7. Pioneers and Immigration
7.1. Canadian Immigration: General
Canada in the Making: Pioneers and Immigrants
Pioneers and Immigrants is one of three broad themes in the Canada in the Making website and focuses on the history of immigration to Canada from 1497-1914. This section is built around government documents from the Early Canadiana Online collection, and integrates narrative text with links to primary source text, images, and maps. The website includes:
links to over 300 digitized documents;
summaries of over 250 key historical documents;
more than 175 historical images and maps;
links to reliable sources of historical information.
Canada in the Making: Specific Events and Topics
Beyond the three broad themes included in the Canada in the Making website, there are also a number of topics of specific interest that allow the viewer to dig more deeply into specific topics in Canadian history. Both topics related to Pioneers and Immigration – the Immigration Acts (1866-2001), and Asian Immigration – feature narrative text integrated with links to primary source texts, images, and maps.
The Canadian West
This exhibition from Collections Canada explores several aspects of European arrival and settlement in the Canadian West, and provides a glimpse of those people who helped forge the new society and bring about enormous change to the West up until the 1930s. The website includes a narrative written by experts supported with over 200 items from Library and Archives Canada including art, medals, maps, and photographs organized into three themes: Anticipation: Expectations for the New Land, Contact: Making the West Canadian, and Accommodation: The West as Home.
The Chung Collection
The Wallace B. Chung and Madeline H. Chung Collection held at the University of British Columbia contains more than 25,000 rare and unique items (documents, books, maps, posters, paintings, photographs, silver, glass, ceramic ware and other artefacts). The online collection is organized into three themes: Immigration and Settlement, Early British Columbia History, and Canadian Pacific Railway Company. The collection on immigration and settlement focuses primarily on the Chinese experience in Canada and the United States, and includes photographs, documents, and artifacts that tell stories of the struggles and successes of Chinese immigrants and their descendants.
CBC Digital Archives: Society
This website project has collected thousands of CBC radio and television clips from the past seven decades and organized them into hundreds of topics that can be viewed or listened to. The array of different topics can be searched for via keyword, and they are also classified into ten broad categories (with further sub-categories). Topics of interest for teaching about immigration include Chinese Immigration to Canada: A Tale of Perseverance, Boat People: A Refugee Crisis, and Making the Mosaic: Multiculturalism in Canada.
CN Images of Canada Gallery: People on the Move
This website has historical photographs from the Canada Science and Technology Museum website and documents new immigrants, refugees, and others.
This bilingual historical overview of immigration in Canada is designed for secondary students. The basic narrative was written by post-secondary students and scholars and reviewed by professional historians. The textual explanations are supplemented with a variety of images, documents, maps, and graphs (including interactive maps and graphs and panorama images) and organized into two mutually supportive sections: History (five different periods from 1867-present) and Perspectives.
Immigrants to Canada
This online website created and maintained by Marjorie P. Kohli at the University of Waterloo features an extensive collection of illustrated voyage accounts, information and manuals written for emigrants of the 19th century (handbooks, letters encouraging immigration to Canada), passenger lists, information about ships and ports, and other documents relating to the arrival of new Canadians at this time.
Immigration and Immigration Policy, 1876-1914
This website is designed to be an interactive, multi-media learning tool designed to help individuals learn about the formation of immigration policy in Canada after Confederation and before the First World War, the major immigrant groups that made the journey, and the challenges faced by these new immigrants upon their arrival in Canada. The site features a historical narrative accompanied by photographs, journal entries, letters, posters, as well as audio and video clips that relate to the narrative. The site also features an interactive trivia game to test students’ knowledge, as well as a teachers' guide containing extra information and activities that can be used in class.
Japanese Canadian History.net
The Japanese Canadian history website is a companion to resource books developed with a Networks Grant from the Ministry of Education on the internment of Japanese Canadians from 1942 to 1949 and the attainment of redress in 1988. “Internment and Redress: The Story of Japanese Canadians” is a resource guide for teachers of grade 5 Social Studies, and “Internment and Redress: The Japanese Canadian Experience" is a resource guide for Social Studies 11 teachers. The website includes several sections including:
Resource Guides: Information about the SS 5 and SS 11 resource guides and how to order them.
Historical Overview: A brief historical summary of Japanese-Canadian immigration to Canada.
Glossary: Key terms and definitions related to Japanese-Canadian immigration.
Other Resources: A vast array of information including information about travelling museum kits, books and novels (organized by age and grade), teacher references, films (including direct links to NFB films), websites and audio tapes.
Teachers’ Area: Includes cautions and guidelines, challenges, samples of elementary and secondary student’s work, and sample lessons for elementary and secondary teachers.
Moving Here, Staying Here. The Canadian Immigrant Experience
This exhibition is divided into two sections; the first section aims to improve access for researchers to some of Library and Archives Canada's frequently used immigration documents; the second section, Traces of the Past: Directives, Debates and Dreams, provides a history of Canadian immigration from 1800 to 1939. Traces of the Past draws on a vast collection of government and private records that have been selected because they provide multiple points of view on various topics in Canadian immigration history. This section of the website is organized into chronological periods subdivided into specific themes that include textual explanation supported by historical documents. These documents, selected by experts in the field, are organized into three broad categories:
Directives: The Canadian government's official responses to immigration from various countries and during various periods are explored through government policies, legislation, and publications.
Debates: This category provides insight into the Canadian public's attitudes towards immigration. Popular pressure, exerted through such things as demonstrations and newspaper articles, played a significant role in influencing Canada's official immigration policies.
Dreams: While every immigrant experience was unique, personal diaries and letters, and family photographs and histories reveal that immigrants shared many hopes and fears. The sources collected here record some common reactions to the immigrant journey and some collective settlement experiences.
7.2. Canadian Immigration: Specific Topics
Anti-Slavery Movement in Canada
To commemorate the 150th anniversary of the establishment of the Anti-Slavery Society of Canada in 1851, Library and Archives Canada created this online exhibition to tell the story of the Anti-Slavery Society in Canada, early Black settlement and communities, and the effect of the American Civil War. The website includes many letters, pamphlets, paintings, and drawings about these topics.
Early Chinese-Canadians 1858-1947
This bilingual website includes the history of Canada's early Chinese immigrants. Find out why they came to Canada and how they contributed to Canada's developing economy, the community ties they formed, and how immigration policies and attitudes restricted their lives. Examine historical photographs, government documents, and letters about early Chinese immigrants in Canada. Watch a 1918 film clip of a funeral procession, listen to a 1905 recording of a Cantonese folksong, or learn about the head tax records (officially called the General Registers of Chinese Immigration). Individuals can search the General Registers online, or read a personal essay and brief family histories from present-day Canadians whose relatives paid this tax.
In Quarantine: Life and Death on Grosse Île, 1832-1937
By 1830, an average of 30,000 immigrants arrived annually in the City of Québec, the main port of entry to Canada, at a time when major cholera and smallpox epidemics were sweeping through Europe. In order to help control the spread of the diseases, the quarantine station at Grosse Île, located in the St. Lawrence River downstream from the City of Québec, was established in 1832 and operated until its closure in 1937. Through a variety of documents preserved and digitized by Library and Archives Canada, such as lists of births and deaths at sea, hospital registers, journals, letters, photographs and maps, this website tells the story not only of the quarantine station, but also of the individuals who experienced life on the island.
Klondike Gold Rush
This bilingual website includes four sections – Prologue, Discovery, Fever Pitch, and Journey’s End – which include written descriptions supplemented by photographs, maps, newspaper headlines, personal diaries, and letters from the Yukon Archives among many others.
New Brunswick Irish Portal: Irish Famine Migration to New Brunswick
This bilingual portal tells the story of the Irish arrival and settlement in the province of New Brunswick and includes eleven galleries such as Ireland 1845-1852, The Passage Out, Across the Broad Atlantic, and Arrival. Each features a variety of letters, documents, photos, and artists’ conceptions.
Pier 21: Canada's Immigration Museum, Online Story Collection
This collection includes PDF copies of stories from immigrants and veterans who passed through Pier 21 and is divided into ten major categories: Immigrants, British Home Children, Veterans, War Brides, British Evacuee Children, Jewish War Orphans, Child Migrants, Displaced People and Refugees, Hungarian Revolution Refugees, Pier 21 Staff and Volunteer Stories.
Remembering Black Loyalists: Black Communities in Nova Scotia
This online exhibit introduces the people, places, objects, events, and stories of the more than 3,000 Black persons who came to Nova Scotia as a direct result of the American Revolution between 1783 and 1785.
Saskatchewan Settlement Experience
This comprehensive website documents the history and settlement of Saskatchewan from 1870 to 1930. The history of Saskatchewan is presented through more than 2,000 records, including photographs, documents, maps, and audio and video files. The website is organized into two main sections, a list of themes on the left and a timeline across the top; the themes section includes the important subjects or aspects of the settlement experience: Landscape, Aboriginal Peoples, Steps to a Homestead, Life on the Prairies, Agriculture, Labour, Transportation and Communication, Women, Education, and Religion; the Timeline section is organized into decades that focus on historical institutions and events that affected the settlement of Saskatchewan including the Hudson’s Bay Company, National Policy, North West Mounted Police, Treaties, Dominion Lands Act, Canadian Pacific Railway, North West Rebellion, WWI, Spanish Flu, and Prohibition. In Teacher Resources there are close to 100 suggested teaching activities for grades 4 to 12 social studies and history.
This is an online exhibition of Irish-Canadian documentary heritage held by Library and Archives Canada where you will discover photographs, letters, books, music, and other evidence of Ireland's influence on Canadian history and culture.
Susanna Moodie and Catherine Parr Traill
Susanna Moodie and Catharine Parr Traill are two of Canada's most important 19th-century writers. In 1832 they immigrated with their Scottish husbands to Canada, where they recorded and interpreted their experiences as pioneers in books which remain famous to this day. Using original photographs and other illustrations, this website is designed to help students enter into the worlds of these two remarkable sisters by bringing together collections held by both the National Library of Canada and the National Archives of Canada, providing the reader with reliable information about their lives, and some of their surviving letters and selections from their books.
Ties that Bind: Building the CPR, Building a Place in Canada
The Ties That Bind: Building the CPR, Building a Place in Canada online virtual exhibit explores the history of the Chinese Canadians from their presence in Canada before Confederation, during the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, through more than 60 years of legislated discrimination under the Head Tax and Exclusion Act, to the present. Through archival evidence and research of the men who came from China to build the transcontinental railroad in the 1880s, and the use of oral testimony of their descendants, The Ties That Bind preserves a seldom told part of Canada's history. The website has been designed and written for a general audience as well as for teachers and students at the primary, middle and secondary school levels. The website provides teachers with downloadable PDF documents of lesson plans, resources that include primary source documents and first-person narratives, and links to additional research material. Two investigation pathways are offered in the website:
Explore the oral histories of the railroad worker descendants by listening to audio segments, viewing image galleries, and reading biographical summaries.
Explore topics thematically. Each of the six themes in the website can be entry points into curriculum areas such as Social Studies and Canadian History. The streams are enriched with image galleries and a timeline, which help to engage students as well as to provide context.
Under a Northern Star
This website presents seven unique collections held at Library and Archives Canada that document the diverse historical experience of African Canadians and includes historical papers, photographs, and other documents that profile the life and work of people and groups who fought against slavery and racism to build settlements including Mary Ann Shadd Cary, James Douglas, Green Thurman, Black Loyalists, and the Africville settlement.
The Underground Railway Years: Canada in an International Arena
This online exhibition provides background, history and context of the Underground Railway in Canada. Each section includes a narrative intertwined with some primary and secondary sources from this time period.
William Hind’s “Overlanders of ’62 Sketchbook”
In 1862 artist WIlliam Hind joined the Overlanders, a group of gold seekers who crossed the Prairies in search of the gold fields of the Fraser and Cariboo regions. During the trip Hind produced a sketchbook documenting his travels and some of the difficulties the Overlanders faced on the undeveloped trails of the West. The 92 pages of his sketchbook retrace Hind’s journey across the Prairies.
8. Canadian Conflicts: Internal and External
8.1. Multiple Canadian Conflicts
Canada at War: A Guide to Library and Archives Canada's Websites Recalling the Canadian War Experience
This website explores Canada's contribution to military and peacekeeping operations at home and around the world. Each link leads to a virtual exhibition or a database of primary documents on major conflicts including the Red River Resistance, Northwest Rebellion, South African War, First World War, Second World War, and the Korean War.
Canadian Letters and Images Project
This is an online archive of the Canadian war experience from the Boer War, World War I ,and World War II as told through the letters and images of Canadians.
Canadian Military History Gateway
This online service provides access to websites and digitized resources about Canada’s military history and is designed to be the authoritative source for quality-controlled information on Canada’s military history by providing several ways to discover and access online military history resources, including a graphic interactive timeline, enhanced search, and guided navigation. Leading institutions responsible for the collection and digitization of resources related to Canada’s military heritage have worked together to build and maintain this website, including the CBC, Canadian War Museum, Department of National Defence, Library and Archives Canada, National Film Board, Parks Canada, and Veterans Affairs Canada. Site visitors can access:
images and narratives in the three volume Canadian Military Heritage reference set, enriched with animation clips;
more than 7,000 unique links to military history resources on Gateway partner sites, including animation, art, artefacts, film, interactive games, music, narratives, personal anecdotes, photos, and scholarly research;
links to partner databases that contain nearly 900,000 additional resources specific to Canadian military history;
links to an array of grade specific, curriculum based learning resources, educational aids, and lesson plans.
Canadian War Poster Collection
This online collection from McGill University Library Digital Collections provides bilingual digital access to 250 Canadian posters from the two World Wars. Each poster contains basic descriptions and images of each poster, an artist index, a search facility, and an essay about Canadian War Posters. The search facility enables individuals to search by World War, by Category, by Artist, or by keyword with results being displayed as thumbnail images. Physical and digital reproductions of all 250 posters in the collection can be obtained on the website.
The Canadian Wartime Experience: The Documentary Legacy of Canada at War
This website provides access to a portion of wartime-related textual records and photographs selected from the larger collections in the University of Manitoba Archives and Special Collections that focus on the differing roles Canadians assumed during times of conflict at home and abroad. Conflicts include the Red River Resistance, Northwest Rebellion, Boer War, WWI, WWII, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.
CBC Digital Archives: War and Conflict
This website project has collected thousands of CBC radio and television clips from the past seven decades and organized them into hundreds of topics that can be viewed or listened to. The array of different topics can be searched via keyword or ten broad categories (with further sub-categories). Possible topics of interest for teaching about internal and external Canadian conflicts in the 20th century include The First World War: Canada Remembers, The Halifax Explosion, The Coming of the Second World War, 1939-1945: The Soldier’s War, Canada’s Forgotten P.O.W. Camps, From Relocation to Redress: Internment of the Japanese Canadians, The Italian Campaign During WWII, The Battle of Ortona, The Contentious Legacy of Dieppe, D-Day: Canadians Target Juno Beach, Canadian Women in WWII, Propaganda and the Second World War, Last Days of War in Europe, Victory! The End of War in Europe, Life After Auschwitz, Shadows of Hiroshima, Love and War: Canadian War Brides, Postwar Return to Canada for Soldiers, Remembrance Day, Reports from Abroad 1942-1956: Matthew Halton, The Gouzenko Affair, One For All: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Forgotten Heroes: Canadians and the Korean War, NORAD: Watching the Skies, Cold War Culture: Nuclear Fears of the 1950s and 1960s, Canada’s Secret War: Vietnam, Seeking Sanctuary: Draft Dodgers, October Crisis: Civil Liberties Suspended, Oka Crisis, The Somalia Affair, 1991 Gulf War, Peacekeeper to the World: 1956-2003, Peacekeepers and Peacemakers: Canada’s Diplomatic Contribution, and Witness to Evil: Romeo Dallaire.
Commemorative History of Aboriginal People in the Canadian Military
This online book focuses on Aboriginal Peoples and their contribution to Canada’s rich military history from the 15th century to the present day and includes an engaging narrative accompanied by many sources of historical evidence including photos, maps, letters, and diaries.
Cost of Freedom: The Loyal Edmonton Regiment Museum
This website was created by the Loyal Edmonton Regiment with the purpose of helping to understand the sacrifices that the men and women of the Canadian military have made to preserve Canadian rights and freedoms. The website is divided into two main sections: Rights and Freedoms explains the choices and responsibilities that we enjoy as citizens; and Sacrifice, by exploring the history of the First World War, The Second World War and the Korean War, celebrates the contributions that the Canadian military has made to keep our country free. Each section features narrative text interspersed with original photographs, film clips, slideshows, original written documents, and oral histories.
From Colony to Country: A Reader's Guide to Canadian Military History
This website provides a “reader’s guide” that includes texts, notes, and bibliographic references for different primary and secondary sources of various Canadian military campaigns including the War of 1812, the Rebellions of 1837 and 1838, the Northwest Campaign, the South African War, the First World War, and the Second World War. Each campaign is divided into ten subsections: General References; Government and the Military; Troops and Traditions; Personal Stories; Aboriginal Peoples; Multicultural Communities; Women; Art, Music and Literature; Commemorations; and Web Research.
Laurier Military History Archive
The Laurier Centre for Military Strategic and Disarmament Studies (LCMSDS), in partnership with Wilfrid Laurier University (Waterloo, ON), has developed The Laurier Military History Archive, an online archive which offers the public unprecedented access to a variety of newly digitized materials on military history and operational research. Documents currently available include the Canadian unit war diaries for the Normandy Campaign (6 June - 25 August 1944), selected operational research materials, and an extensive collection of Second World War aerial photographs of battlefields across Northwest Europe. New materials will be added regularly.
Peace and War in the 20th Century
McMaster University Library’s interactive, thematic website has been organized into two opposing sections: Waging Peace and Waging War. Within these two themes, international conflicts are represented by images and 3,000 official records available in McMaster University Library’s archives. This website is organized around fifty case studies, a timeline to provide chronological context, audio and video files, and transcribed materials from the originals for easier reading. The sources tell compelling, personal stories that enable readers to approach a deeper understanding of the issues concerning peace and war including nuclear disarmament, peace movements, women for peace, the home front, civilians caught up in war, mapping and photographing the First World War, war propaganda, sabotage and spying, soldier artists and poets, the soldier’s life, and women in war.
Photographs: Canada at War Website
This privately created website is devoted to the soldiers who fought in all major Canadian conflicts in the 20th century. One section of the website provides photographs of the Canadian experience in WWI, WWII, and the Korean War including 78 from the First World War, 479 from the Second World War, and 16 from the Korean War.
Saskatchewan in Two World Wars: An Exhibition
Despite differing dates, causes, strategies, battles, and conclusions, there are many similarities between the two world wars of the twentieth century. Hostilities developed, declarations of war were issued, recruitment and enlistment occurred, training and equipping were undertaken, engagements were fought and peace treaties were signed. The exhibit is not intended to be a definitive history of either war, or even to fully document Saskatchewan's participation in the two conflicts. This online exhibit is presented as "shared experiences" that juxtapose similar activities at different times and in differing ways by providing representative images and textual materials from the archival repositories in Saskatchewan that participate in the Saskatchewan Archival Information Network (SAIN).
8.2. Canada’s Military Conflicts 1750-1914
Battles of 1759 and 1760
This website offered by the Government of Canada and the National Battlefields Commission provides a comprehensive account of the Battle for Québec in 1759 and 1760 that was part of the Seven Years’ War. The website is organized into secondary accounts of the battles including contextual information about the Seven Years’ War, The Siege of Québec, the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, and the Treaty of Paris. Few primary and secondary sources are used to supplement the text on the website.
Canada and the South African War 1899-1902
This online exhibition from the Canadian War Museum provides a comprehensive view of The South African War (1899-1902), or as it is also known the Boer War, which marked Canada's first official dispatch of troops to an overseas war. The website provides an in-depth look at almost every aspect of the war including historical background, information about the Canadian units that fought, significant Canadian battles, Canadian personalities, weapons, uniforms, and maps of the war. Numerous primary sources accompany the written text in each section.
The Seven Years’ War Website
This website presents the first published primary account of the siege of Québec in 1759 written by the Sergeant Major of the 40th Regiment’s Grenadiers (part of the Louisbourg Grenadiers). Embedded in the online journal are selected paintings of the Québec campaign.
“Withour Fear, Favour or Affection”: The Men of the North West Mounted Police
This online exhibit emphasizes life in the NWMP from the men themselves. Their stories are told through many original archival documents, most of which have never before been available to the broad public. The website includes five main sections: Signing Up introduces the rank structure, requirements for service, training, and the personal histories of the officers and men, through letters of application, diaries, photographs, and other archival documents. On the Job looks at daily life in the NWMP in the late 19th century. Serving the Nation shows the NWMP as agents of the federal government, engaging in tasks ranging from census taking to escorts for important visitors to the Northwest. Fighting Crime focuses on the NWMP in its traditional law enforcement role.
8.3. Canada and World War One: General
An Archival Look at WWI
Queen's University Archives has created this online exhibit to complement the core curriculum for secondary education and offer teachers much-needed original source materials to support themes in 20th century history and geography, as well as suggestions for teachers to integrate these original documents into lesson plans. In An Archival Look at World War I teachers can choose key documents from sub-themes such as the Canadian Homefront, The Technology of WWI, Women during the First World War, and World War One Warfare that include original photographs and correspondence from the front.
Canada and the First World War
This online exhibit is designed to illustrate the many roles that Canadian men and women played during the First World War, and the definite mark the war left on our society. The documents included in this website are not intended to rewrite the history of the conflict, but to present the variety and wealth of sources held at Library and Archives Canada. The exhibition includes three different sections:
War Diaries presents a selection of war diary entries (daily account of each unit’s Actions in the Field) from important battles Canadian soldiers fought.
We Were There presents documents and photos that recount the experiences of enlisted men, officers, politicians, nurses, farmers, and women munitions workers that enable researchers to see the war through their eyes.
Did You Know That? examines tragedies on the home front, major changes that occurred on the home front during the war, biographies of prominent Canadians that profile the role they played during the war, as well as contributions from Native Canadians, the nation’s youth, and conscientious objectors.
Canada and the First World War
This online exhibition provides a comprehensive review of the Canadian war experience during World War One. The exhibition is organized into four sections including Introduction to the First World War, History of the First World War, Objects and Photos of the First World War, and Teacher Resources. Each section is broken into further subsections and include explanatory text supported by photos and objects from the war that can be magnified and manipulated for improved viewing. There are also featured topics on Vimy Ridge, Trench Routine and Remembrance, an archive of all of the photos and objects featured on the site, and an extensive teacher resource section.
Canada and the First World War/Le Canada et la Première Guerre mondiale
This Library and Archives Canada photostream on flickr presents more than one hundred photos, paintings, and other images that document Canada’s involvement in the First World War.
Front Lines: A film by Claude Guilman
This impressive 33-minute NFB film directed by Claude Guilman traces the conflict through the war diaries and private letters of five Canadian soldiers and a nurse. The film shows historical footage shot in Montréal and Europe, as well as actual photos of the war diary and letters from the George Metcalf Archival Collection, Canadian War Museum, Library and Archives Canada, the National Film Board of Canada, Archives of Ontario ,and other sources.
Images of a Forgotten War: Films of the Canadian Expeditionary Force in the Great War
This website from the National Film Board provides a rich collection of over 120 archival films accompanied by photos, historical essays written by noted Canadian experts, and a range of different teaching materials. The website is organized into five chapters:
Prologue: Description of the project, how the war was started, and how the images/film were captured.
Building a Force: Films shot between 1915 and 1917 that show the mobilization of troops in Canada and their training in Europe.
Wartime: Films showing the CEF throughout the battles, with footage shot between 1915 and 1918 of troops engaged in battle, and pilots and aircraft in action.
Postwar Period: Footage of Canadian troops just after the armistice, in November and December 1918, and the return of soldiers to Canada in early 1919.
Epilogue: Essays, photos and paintings relating to postwar Europe, the affirmation of Canada as an independent nation and what became of soldiers after the war.
Oral Histories of the First World War: Veterans 1914-1918
This web exhibition is based on the CBC's radio broadcast In Flanders Fields, a series of one-on-one interviews with veterans of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, which aired between November 11, 1964 and March 7, 1965. The website is organized into seven themes: Second Ypres, Vimy Ridge, War in the Air, The Somme, Trench Warfare, Passchendaele, and Perspectives on War. These first-hand accounts, which can be listened to or read via the retyped transcripts, provide personal insights on the experience of World War One.
Soldiers of the First World War—C.E.F. (Canadian Expeditionary Force)
Library and Archives Canada has digitized and made available online images of attestation (enlistment) papers for over 600,000 Canadians who enlisted in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) during the First World War. This website provides an index to the 800,000 images of personnel files and Attestation papers.
The Virtual Gramophone: Canadian Historical Sound Recordings
Visitors to this website can consult 1,500 cataloguing records in the database, and 350 digitally-restored audio recordings, documenting recordings featuring Canadian composers and performers released during the Great War. In addition there are a series of articles and images explaining the period and the music, as well as biographical sketches of the major Canadian musical personalities. Of particular note is the extensive coverage for the Dumbells, Canada's premier entertainment troupe of the era.
War Diaries of the First World War
This database contains the digitized War Diaries of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) units. From the start of the First World War, CEF units were required to maintain a daily account of their Actions in the Field. This log was called a War Diary which is not a personal diary, but an historical record of a unit’s administration, operations and activities during the First World War.
War Letters 1914–1918
War Letters 1914–1918 tells a history of the First World War through the words and letters of nine very different men who died in the fighting. The first three volumes were published as ebooks in June 2014. The subsequent volumes will follow at regular intervals throughout the next four years (from 2014). Included in the series are the letters of servicemen from Britain, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. Together their experiences cover the war on the Western Front, Gallipoli, Mesopotamia and the war at sea and in the air.
8.4. Canada and World War One: Specific Topics
The Battle of Passchendaele: Resources at Library and Archives Canada
This virtual exhibition brings together online resources from Library and Archives Canada (LAC) for the Battle of Passchendaele, including a description of the battle, photographs, maps, battalion war diaries and oral histories of soldiers who fought in the battle.
The Battle of the Somme: A Nation Lost But Never Forgotten
This website created by the Trinity Historical Society uses primary documents, images and video to tell the tragic story of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment and their tragic day at Beaumont-Hamel during the Battle of the Somme on July 1, 1916. The website includes the history of the regiment during World War I, details of the Battle of the Somme and Soldier/Family Stories and Commemoration information that include narrative text as well as an impressive collection of primary documents.
The Call To Duty: Canada’s Nursing Sisters
This virtual exhibition tells the story of six women who served as nursing sisters during the First World War. There are two sections: "Active Duty" presents the personal diaries, letters and photographs of these women and "Caregiving on the Front" provides a history of nursing sisters during the First World War.
The Halifax Explosion
This website takes individuals through the causes, the day of the Halifax Explosion and the aftermath in the days that followed using a variety of audio interview clips, interactive maps and photographs
Internment of Ukrainians in Canada 1914-1920
The purpose of this website is to inform the general population about the Canadian Government's First National Internment Operations during the period of 1914-1920 which interned Ukrainian Canadians in Concentration Camps across Canada. The webpage includes articles about the internment experience, photo galleries, internment camp locations and maps, requests for redress from the Canadian government, lists of internees names, audio and video clips, bibliographies and other internment sites.
Les Purs Canayen
This online exhibition from the Canadian War Museum focuses on posters used during the First World War (1914-1918) that encouraged French-Canadians to enlist in the war. Each poster includes a short explanation and translation into English, however there is no zooming options.
SOS! Canadian Disasters: The Halifax Explosion
Canada's diverse geographic and climatic range has witnessed almost every type of natural disaster possible. In SOS: Canadian Disasters, Library and Archives Canada present a selection of events that have made their impact across this land, and resound in the collective consciousness of Canadians. The section devoted to the Halifax Explosion outlines the key events that caused the explosion and provides newspaper articles, a photographic archive and handwritten accounts of the blast from people who witnessed the explosion first-hand.
Traces of War
In the aftermath of the First World War Canadian artist Mary Riter Hamilton journeyed to the scenes of battle to paint pictures of the destructive consequences of war. She undertook a “special mission” for the War Amputations of Canada to provide paintings of the battlefields of France and Belgium for publication in a veterans’ magazine, The Gold Stripe. She produced over 300 battlefield paintings from 1919 to 1922, of which forty of them are available for viewing on this website.
8.5. Canada and World War Two: General
Canada in WW II
This online museum documenting the Canadian war effort is presented by the Juno Beach Centre and is available in both French and English. The website features narrative text supported with photographs from the Canadian War Museum, Library and Archives Canada and the Department of National Defence. The website is organized into four main sections:
• Events: Focuses on the events Canada was involved in at sea, on land and in the air that led to the fall of the German Reich and brought back peace.
• People: Focuses on the friends or foes, military or civilians that influenced the course of events through their words, their deeds, or their courage.
• Arms & Weapons: Describes the organization of over a million men and women who joined Canadian ground, naval and air forces, and medical services between 1939 and 1945. Canadian troops relied on efficient organization and a wide range of services that provided food, shelter, medical care, intelligence and communications, and on ships, aircrafts, tanks and weapons needed to face the enemy.
• Interactive Centre: These interactive animations, follow the major events of the war in the air, on land and at sea and look at some of the technologies used during WWII.
CBC Digital Archives: War and Conflict
The CBC/Radio-Canada Digital Archives website project has collected thousands of CBC radio and television clips from the past seven decades into hundreds of topics that can be viewed or listened to on the website. The array of different topics can be searched for via keyword, or they are also classified into ten broad categories (with further sub-categories). Possible topics of interest for teachers teaching about World War Two include: The Coming of the Second World War, 1939-1945: The Soldier’s War, Canada’s Forgotten P.O.W. Camps, From Relocation to Redress: Internment of the Japanese Canadians, The Italian Campaign During WW II, The Battle of Ortona, The Contentious Legacy of Dieppe, D-Day: Canadians Target Juno Beach, Canadian Women in WW II, Propaganda and the Second World War, Last Days of War in Europe, Victory! The End of War in Europe, Life After Auschwitz, Shadows of Hiroshima, Love and War: Canadian War Brides, Postwar Return to Canada for Soldiers, Remembrance Day, Reports from Abroad 1942-1956: Matthew Halton.
Democracy at War: Canadian Newspapers and the Second World War
During WW II the staff of the Hamilton Spectator collected more than 144,000 newspaper stories and editorials from mostly Canadian newspapers and arranged them by date and subject. The website details almost every aspect of the Canadian experience in WW II and is organized onto four key topics (Introduction, Canada & the War, Operations, The Holocaust) that include short historical articles along with sample clippings from the collection. You are also invited to explore the online database using either the Basic search or the detailed search, which includes a date searching feature. A glossary of terms, highlighted in red throughout the historical articles, provide definitions for technical terms and abbreviations.
Faces of War
This Library and Archives Canada (LAC) online exhibit features photographs taken from the Department of National Defence (DND) collection and depicts every aspect of military life for the men and women who served in the Canadian Forces during the Second World War. Visitors to the site can search a database of almost 2,500 images from the DND collection, or they can browse small galleries of images representing each branch of the Canadian Forces: Army, Navy and Air Force
The Memory Project: Stories of the Second World War
This Memory Project website provides Second World War veterans with the opportunity to share their memories through oral interviews and digitized artefacts and memorabilia. All of the recorded audio stories and artefacts are available on this site for teachers, students and the general public and can be accessed through the digital archive.
On All Fronts: World War II and the NFB
This website created by the National Film Board of Canada is organized into five categories (with further subcategories) that include excerpts of films (with links to the entire film), vox populi—films that interview contemporary people in the street, photograph galleries, and articles written by experts.
• WW II: An Overview in Moving Pictures: includes three 1995 films that provide an overview of the war, and also three animated films about wartime savings.
• Many Voices, Many Stories: Includes two subsections Pride and Sacrifice, and Personal Stories that tell the stories of Canadians who fought in the Second World War and are often overlooked by history, despite going through dire or extraordinary situations.
• The Home Front: Includes three subsections Women and the War, Recruitment and Conscription, and Propaganda: The Battle for Hearts and Minds that outlines how WW II affected the country socially, politically and economically.
• Critical Perspectives: Includes two subsections The Rights and Wrongs of War, and Going Back that encourage viewers to question the ethics of war.
• See Everything, Hear Everything: This section features the collection of the films, excerpts, archives, filmed interviews, vox populi and articles by specialists featured on the website that can be sorted by title, director or time period.
8.6. Canada and World War Two: Specific Topics
Alternative Service in the Second World War: Conscientious Objectors in Canada: 1939-1945
This website focuses on conscientious objectors and alternative service during the Second World War This site was created by the Mennonite Heritage Centre (Winnipeg, Canada) in partnership with Mennonite Church Canada. It uses primary sources, such as pictures, tape recordings, movies, letters, journals, and documents not available in libraries. This website is written at a grade 6 level, but can easily be adapted up or down as upper elementary children will enjoy the multimedia presentations and the story of Canada’s COs, while the ethical and moral dimensions of being a CO will challenge more advanced senior students.
Art and War: Australian, Britain and Canada in the Second World War
This online exhibition from the Canadian War Museum show the shared impact the war had on individual lives in Australia, Britain and Canada; the men and women that feature in these works are shown waiting, preparing, fighting, suffering, or celebrating. The paintings and sculptures in the exhibition are grouped into general themes, rather than specific events: Battle, Service, Work, Captivity and Casualties, and Home and Leisure. The collection can also be viewed by national collection or by artist.
Canadian War Industry during the Second World War
On this website you will find black and white photographs taken during the Second World War by the Wartime Information Board. This series spans from 1939 to 1945, and documents the roles of Canadian civilians in the Second World War industrial effort. Although the series was originally produced to encourage participation and support for the war effort, the photographs now document the shifts that occurred within Canadian society at the time. You can perform a keyword search to browse through 2,880 images, or in the ‘Highlights’ section of the site you will find a selection of images arranged under three sections: Industries, Photographers and Themes.
D-Day: National Film Board
This website produced by the National Film Board in conjunction with the 60th Anniversary of the Canadian D-Day landings (2004) presents five documentary films developed from original footage of the landings to commemorate those who served Canada on the beaches of Normandy in the summer of 1944.
Dear Sweetheart: Letters Home from a Soldier
The Globe and Mail has published hundreds of letters that soldier David K. Hazzard wrote to his beloved wife Audrey and their two young daughters after he was shipped out to the war front on July 10, 1941 as a way of paying homage to WW II veterans, those who died, their families and Canada’s fighting families today. Hazzard began each letter the same way – 'Dear Sweetheart' and the letters that followed provide a riveting account of what he went through.
Japanese-Canadian Photograph Collection
The 661 photographs in the Japanese Canadian Photograph Collection (JCPC) were assembled by UBC Library's Rare Books and Special Collections from various donors beginning in the 1970s. While the JCPC documents a wide range of the experiences of Canadians of Japanese descent in British Columbia, the resource is particularly strong in chronicling their treatment during World War II.
Through a Lens: Dieppe in Photograph and Film
This website contains photographic and film footage of Dieppe selected from the holdings of Library and Archives Canada. It features a timeline of the events leading up to the raid on Dieppe, 2 newsreels produced by the Nazi regime, 6 newsreels produced by the Canadian Film and Photo Unit, an image gallery, as well as Educational Resources for students at the intermediate and secondary level.
8.7. Canadian Conflicts Post-WW II
CBC Digital Archives: War and Conflict
The CBC/Radio-Canada Digital Archives website project has collected thousands of CBC radio and television clips from the past seven decades into hundreds of topics that can be viewed or listened to on the website. The array of different topics can be searched for via keyword, or they are also classified into ten broad categories (with further sub-categories). Possible topics of interest for teachers teaching about internal and external Canadian conflicts after 1945 including: The Gouzenko Affair, One For All: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Forgotten Heroes: Canadians and the Korean War, NORAD: Watching the Skies, Cold War Culture: Nuclear Fears of the 1950’s and 1960’s, Canada’s Secret War: Vietnam, Seeking Sanctuary: Draft Dodgers, October Crisis: Civil Liberties Suspended, Oka Crisis, The Somalia Affair, 1991 Gulf War, Peacekeeper to the World: 1956-2003, Peacekeepers and Peacemakers: Canada’s Diplomatic Contribution, Witness to Evil: Romeo Dallaire.
Documents on the October Crisis
From the Quebec History webpage at Marianopolis College, this website includes over twenty important documents from the October Crisis including interviews from important participants, transcriptions of official statements and articles from newspapers and magazines of the time.
Korean Veterans Association of Canada, Inc.
This website created by the Korean Veterans Association of Canada is dedicated to the 516 Canadians who died during the Korean War. The website has several areas of interest for teachers including photo galleries of the Korean War, and Korean War Battle Maps.
9. Politics and Government
9.1. Constitutional History
Building a Just Society: A Retrospective of Canadian Rights and Freedoms
This web exhibition was created to mark the 25th anniversary of the Proclamation of the Constitution Act, 1982 signed on April 17, 1982 that made Canada the sole custodian of its constitutional development and established a Charter of Rights and Freedoms, guaranteeing the fundamental freedoms, democratic rights, mobility rights, legal rights, equality rights and language rights of all Canadians. The website explores the documentary heritage collections that record the story of governance and political culture in Canada, and the achievement of rights and freedoms that have marked its national evolution as a just society. The website is organized into sections that analyze the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Think, Vote, Move, Live, Affirm, Speak, Respect) and also invites a number of individual Canadians to contribute their personal thoughts and thought-provoking commentary on the Charter.
Canada in the Making
Canada’s Constitutional History traces the road to Confederation through the establishment of New France and British North America, the rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada, the Act of Union and the establishment of responsible government in the BNA and finally the important steps towards Confederation. This website is built around government documents from the Early Canadiana Online collection, and integrates narrative text with links to primary source text, images, and maps. The website includes:
• links to over 300 digitized documents;
• summaries of over 250 key historical documents;
• more than 175 historical images and maps;
• links to reliable sources of historical information.
Canada’s Constitutional Evolution
The constitutional evolution of Canada now spans over four centuries. Through texts and symbols, French, British, and Canadian governments and the First Nations have left their mark on the history of this country. Two main parts are presented: an exhibition entitled
Canada: Milestones in Our Constitutional Evolution, with fifty documents (like portraits, maps and medals) relating to Canada’s constitutional history; and stimulating and instructive games which relate to the contents of the exhibition.
This website tells the story of Canada’s origin—from four provinces in 1867 to ten provinces and three territories presently. Historical essays showcase documents, articles, and photographs of the people, places, and events that shaped Confederation, including a number of rare items offered by Library and Archives Canada. The website includes sections that are helpful for teaching Confederation:
• Towards Confederation: Essays on the important events that led up to Confederation;
• Provinces and Territories: The process by which all ten provinces and three territories entered Confederation;
• People: a collection of biographies of the key individuals responsible for the creation and building of Canada, organized alphabetically and by province or territory;
• Maps 1667-1999: A series of maps that gives a clearer picture of Canada’s territorial evolution;
• Political Cartoons: A variety of political cartoons from the Confederation era.
CBC Digital Archives: Constitutional Issues
This website project has collected thousands of CBC radio and television clips from the past seven decades categorized into hundreds of topics that can be viewed or listened to. The array of different topics, radio, and television clips can be searched for via keyword, and they are also classified into ten broad categories (with further sub-categories). Possible topics of interest to teaching about the constitution include Rene Levesque’s Separatist Fight, Minority Report: Governing by Minority in Canada, A la Prochaine Fois: The 1980 Quebec Referendum, Charting the Future: Canada’s New Constitution, Voting In Canada: How a Privilege Became a Right, Constitutional Discord: Meech Lake, and Separation Anxiety: The 1995 Quebec Referendum.
Charlottetown Conference of 1864 “...the Confederation of Canada.”
This comprehensive website from the SchoolNet Digital Collections program about the Charlottetown Conference of 1864 and Confederation includes the following sections helpful for teaching Confederation: A summary of the important meetings, social events, schedule and outcomes of the Charlottetown Conference; biographies of the Fathers of Confederation; newspaper clippings from the time around the Conference; photos and drawings of the important people, places, and events surrounding the conference; and a glossary that includes people, places, groups, events, and terms.
A History of the Vote in Canada
This online exhibition produced by the Canadian Museum of Civilization traces the development of our electoral system that is often held up as a model of democracy, and highlights the milestones along the way. The website is organized into several sections: Journeys, Timelines, Chronicle and Game. Journeys presents nine mini-journeys through a History of the Vote in Canada, the Timeline allows individuals to pick the period of time they would like to visit, past, present or future, Chronicle provides a spotlight on the period 1920-1977, and Game is an Elections Canada Trivia Game.
9.2. Prime Ministers of Canada
CBC Digital Archives: Prime Ministers
The CBC/Radio-Canada Digital Archives website project has collected thousands of CBC radio and television clips from the past seven decades into hundreds of topics that can be viewed or listened to on the website. The array of different topics can be searched for via keyword or category (10 broad categories with further sub-categories). Possible topics of interest for teaching about Canadian Prime Ministers include Sir John A. Macdonald: Architect of Modern Canada; Mackenzie King: Public Life, Private Man; Louis St-Laurent and Canada’s Golden Age; John Diefenbaker: Dief the Chief; Lester B. Pearson: From Peacemaker to Prime Minister; Trudeaumania: A Swinger for Prime Minister; Pierre Elliott Trudeau: Philosopher and Prime Minister; The Man From High River: Joe Clark; Brian Mulroney: The Negotiator; Kim Campbell: First and Foremost; Jean Chretien: From Pool Hall to Parliament Hill; and Paul Martin: Prime Minister in Waiting.
This privately created website indexes any Diefenbaker-related material found online. The website includes various sections including articles about Diefenbaker, a Diefenbaker books list, a list of Diefenbaker quotations, information about the Avro Arrow, Diefenbaker Documents, Pictures and Sounds, Colleagues, Strange Stuff, and Miscellaneous.
First Among Equals: The Prime Minister in Everyday life and Canadian Politics
Drawing on a wide variety of documents and artefacts, this site explores five main themes (Alone at the Top, The Path to Power, Leading Canada, Private Life, Afterwards) relating to Canada's prime ministers. The site examines the leaders' political careers as well as their private lives. It also sheds light on Canadians' perceptions of their prime ministers.
A Real Companion and Friend: The Diary of William Lyon Mackenzie King
This website serves to introduce King's extensive diary (nearly 30,000 pages with more than 7,500,000 words) to contemporary readers. The background section of the website is intended to serve as an introduction, exploring these remarkable texts, both as revealing personal narratives and as an invaluable record of Canada's political and social history during six formative and crucial decades. Furthermore, it examines the little-known history of the diary as an archival document, including the decision to save the texts for posterity (contrary to King's stated wishes). The website is organized into the following sections: Introduction, Behind the Diary, Search Mackenzie King’s Diary or Photographs of King, Educational Resources and Activities Designed for Intermediate (grades 6-8) and Secondary (grades 9-12) Students.
Sir John A. Macdonald: Canada’s Patriot Statesman
This website introduces a virtual exhibition of photographs, documentary art and other unique records held at Library and Archives Canada, and introduces tens of thousands of pages from Macdonald's political papers and correspondence that were made available online for the first time in 2008, enabling visitors to learn about Macdonald's life, career and legacy.
9.3. Politics and Government: Miscellaneous
This online exhibit created by the Saskatchewan Council for Archives and Archivists traces the story of the Avro Arrow from its origins to the cancellation of the project. Primary sources such as photographs, drawings, political documents, and editorial cartoons add to the narrative. The website is organized into the following sections: Origins, Design, Flight Testing, Roll-Out, The Arrow, The Iroquois, Cancellation, and Aftermath.
CBC Digital Archives
The CBC/Radio-Canada Digital Archives website project has collected thousands of CBC radio and television clips from the past seven decades into hundreds of topics that can be viewed or listened to on the website. The array of different topics, radio and television clips can be searched for via keyword, and they are also classified into ten broad categories (with further sub-categories). Possible topics of interest to teachers teaching about a variety of political topics in Canadian history including: Scandals, Boondoggles and White Elephants 1873-2002, Fighting Words: Bill 101, Tommy Douglas and the NDP, The Birth of Medicare, The Great Canadian Flag Debate, The Road to Bilingualism 1963-1982, Death Penalty Debate, The Avro Arrow: Canada’s Broken Dream, Canada-Unites States Free Trade Agreement.
The Famous Five: Library and Archives Canada
The Famous Five online exhibition was a joint initiative of the National Archives of Canada, the National Library of Canada, the Department of Justice Canada and the Famous 5 Foundation. The bilingual exhibition coincides with the unveiling on Parliament Hill of a monument in honour of the five Alberta women who played an important role in women being admitted to the Senate. In the first two sections of the website, archival documents describe the legal process of the "Persons" Case, and correspondence and official documents reveal the obstacles that had to be overcome. The third section provides an overview of the many repercussions that their victory has had across Canada, from the appointment of the first woman to the Senate in 1930 to today.
Images of Canada: Canada’s Flag Debate
The Saskatchewan Council for Archives & Archivists presents this online website that documents the history of the Canadian flag and the debate that led to its institution in 1965. The website is broken into eight chapters that provide the history of the flag debate and inception. Each chapter includes explanatory text that is enriched by numerous political cartoons, excerpts from newspapers and magazines, many Canadians’ sample drawings of proposed flags, and assorted other primary and secondary sources.
Making Medicare: The History of Healthcare in Canada 1914-2007
This online exhibition from the Museum of Civilization is organized into eight decades, that each focus on four main sections: History, Key Players, Geography, and Costs and Benefits of Medicare. Each section employs a descriptive, narrative style supported by primary and secondary sources such as photographs, excerpts from government reports, political cartoons and newspaper and magazine articles. The website also includes an Educational Lab with high quality webquests, lesson plans, resources and other lesson ideas for both students and teachers.
Medicare: A People’s Issue
This website produced by the Saskatchewan Council of Archives and Archivists presents the history of Medicare in Saskatchewan. The website features a timeline, a source list and an educator’s section and organizes the history of Medicare into two time periods: The Road to Medicare 1905-1959, and Birth of Medicare 1960-62. Each time period discusses topics that contributed to the development of healthcare and includes summaries of the topic plus a wide variety of primary sources such as letters, photographs, government correspondence and publications, newspaper articles, magazines, political cartoons amongst others.
10.1. Canadian Society: General
Canadian Labour History, 1850-1999
This online exhibition produced by the Canadian Museum of Civilization traces the history of Canadian Labour with the aim of showing how it served its members while forcing broader reforms on our nation. Pensions, health insurance, the shorter workday, a living wage, the right to organize were all fought for by workers in unions or workers trying to form unions. The website is organized into three sections: The Dark Years, Labour’s Advance, and New Directions. Each section includes several chapters that include both History and Voices, History provides textual summaries and descriptions, while the Voices section includes audio clips that present a more personalized account of the issue.
CBC Digital Archives: Society
The CBC/Radio-Canada Digital Archives website project has collected thousands of CBC radio and television clips from the past seven decades into hundreds of topics that can be viewed or listened to on the website. The array of different topics, radio and television clips can be searched for via keyword, and they are also classified into ten broad categories (with further sub-categories). Possible topics of interest to teachers teaching about a variety of topics in Canadian social history including: The Group of Seven: Painters in the Wilderness, So Long City, Hello Suburbs, Woodstock Remembered, Hippie Society: The Youth Rebellion, Our American Friends, 1960’s A Go Go, Expo 67: Montreal Welcomes the World, Ruling the Airwaves: The CRTC and Canadian Content, Greenpeace: Always Bearing Witness, Comrade Bethune: A Controversial Hero, Marc Garneau: Canadian Space Pioneer, One Giant Leap: The Moon Landing, Canadarm: A Technology Star.
Expo 67 Man and His World...A Virtual Experience
This comprehensive virtual exhibit presented by Library and Archives Canada allows individuals to investigate all aspects of the Expo 67 experience. The website is organized into sections including history, pavilions, activities, special guests, news reports, legacy, and Canada’s Centennial and includes many different sources from the LAC archives.
The History of Canada’s Public Pensions
This online exhibition produced by the Canadian Museum of Civilization traces the history of Canada’s Public Pensions and the role they have played in ensuring the financial security for our seniors as well as helping us cope with transitions in our lives. The website is organized into seven chronological periods of time each of which each include summaries of daily life, political events, world events, influential people and what Canadians received during that time period. The Resources section of the website includes an Overview of the website layout, a Pension Timeline, a Researcher’s Summary, a Bibliography, a list of Related Sites, a Bibliography and a Photo Gallery.
McGill University Library Digital Collections: Habitat ’67 Revisited
Habitat ’67, designed by Moshe Safdie and built as part of Expo, the World’s Fair hosted by Montreal in 1967, has become an internationally recognized example of experimental housing whose place in the history of twentieth-century architecture is assured. The Habitat website includes comprehensive sketches, plans, elevations, sections, working drawings, structural details, and photographs of models. Digital panoramic views are included which capture the structure in successive seasons. The three-dimensional modelling of Habitat ’67 is rendered in terms of architectural details, component layering and topography. Images from the initial phases of the project and its construction are included, as are interviews and case studies featuring first- and second-generation Habitat residents.
The Story of How Canadians Worked to Advance Social Progress
This online exhibition from the Canadian Museum of Civilization presents four different websites that tell the story of how Canadians worked to make changes in social progress. Making Medicare: The History of Health Care in Canada, 1914-2007 http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/hist/medicare/medic00e.shtml
Canadian Labour History, 1850-1999
A History of the Vote in Canada
The History of Canada’s Public Pensions
10.2. Sport in Canadian Society
Backcheck: A Hockey Retrospective
This digital project's primary focus is on the early days of hockey. Materials from the collection of Library and Archives Canada are presented to trace the development of Canada's national winter sport. The site includes a chronological presentation of hockey stories from English and French language newspapers, providing a valuable resource for online hockey research. The site also includes feature articles, rare items from the collection of LAC, as well as a guide to hockey resources at LAC.
CBC Digital Archives: Sports
The CBC/Radio-Canada Digital Archives website project has collected thousands of CBC radio and television clips from the past seven decades into hundreds of topics that can be viewed or listened to on the website. The array of different topics, radio and television clips can be searched for via keyword, and they are also classified into ten broad categories (with further sub-categories). Possible topics of interest for teachers teaching about a variety of topics in Canadian sports history including: Canada-Soviet Hockey Series, 1972, Fair Game: Pioneering Canadian Women in Sports, Politics and the Olympics, Terry Fox’s Marathon of Hope, Terry Fox 25: Reliving the Marathon of Hope.
The Olympics: An Historical Perspective
This online exhibition from Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University Library, includes random samples from three large and important collections of materials documenting the Olympic Games to celebrate the opening of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing on 8 August 2008. The online exhibition also includes material on the Pan American Games and the Commonwealth Games.
Sporting Lives: Images of Canadian Athletes
This is a tribute to the men and women who have excelled in professional and amateur sports from the birth of Confederation to the present. All the images were selected from the National Archives’ collections of photographs, posters, letters, poems, drawings, philatelic artwork, films and television programs that show athletes at various stages of their lives, in both competitive and informal settings. The images demonstrate the changing ways sports figures have been viewed over time.
Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre: More Than Just Games: Canada & the 1936 Olympics
This online exhibit from the Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre focuses on the 1936 Olympics held in Nazi Germany, a critical point in German history between the building of a racial state and the Holocaust. Athletes in both Canada and the rest of the world had to decide whether they should follow their dreams to the world's greatest athletic competition, or should they boycott the 1936 Olympics? This website includes five major sections: The Nazi State, The Boycott Debate, Canadian Athletes, the 1936 Games, Bodies and Pageantry that is divided into further subsections that includes an engaging narrative interspersed with original photographs with interactive features. An extensive PDF teacher’s guide and student readings are also provided.